As you know, there is a lot of different lenses. All of them have the same function: they capture the reflective light from subject and focus it on the image sensor. The main difference between them is how they transmit the light.
Telephoto lens – A telephoto lens has a long focal length and his primary function is to magnify the subject. Also, this lense brings closer objects that are far away. That property is good to use when we can not approach to the object or we do not want (sport, nature or wild animals).
Wide angle lens – This type of lens has small focal length. With wide angle lens you can add more scene in the photo. That can be useful when you take architectural or landscape photos.
Another use of this lense is to emphasise the distance between objects in front and rear: the objects in the front look very large unlike the objects in the rear.
Normal lens – This lense is also called a standard lens. It got its name because a field of view looks „normal“ for humans. The other types of lenses with shorter/longer focal length have expanded field of view.
Mirror lens – In this special lens some his parts are replaced with a mirror. Usually they come with a fixed aperture.
Zoom lens – In this type of the lens focal length can vary because positive and negative elements are placed together. Some telephoto lens can have zoom lens capabilities so don’t get confused.
Prime lens – Unlike the zoom lens, this type has a fixed focal length. They are fast with larger apperture that allows to take photos in lower light. With lesser moving parts they have solved a prbolem with chromatic aberrations.
Macro lens – Macro lens is used when we want to take a picture of insects, flowers or any other small object because they have very high focusing movement.
Fish-eye lens – With this lens we can get a disorted photo. Fish-eye is a wide angle lens which can give us hemispherical photo.